I had a super question about AI threatening the future of the human race... only Vee beat me to it!
This has happened to me on several occasions, I like to think it means I have a very Great Mind Indeed :)
On this occasion, I got an Editor Comment on my question saying it couldn't be published as the same one had just been published by someone else!
Before submitting any question, I do a search for the words in the question and any tags I'm going to use, to check that it hasn't been asked already.
I think this has only happened to me once however when checking in the editors queue and also when checking my own questions, I often find similar or even the same, and constantly have to change questions.
I guess this means the answer is definitely YES.
It has still only happened to me once or possibly twice that a question was published the same day as I had the same or similar waiting in a queue.